There were no other significant relations between any of the The moderating variables risk aversion and involvement surprisingly did not have a significant moderating role. Involvement, being a parent or not, was argued to be of influence because parents are a completely different audience than other consumers Carey et al. The results of this thesis argue against this view based on this research showing that involvement does not play a significant role in the relationship of transparency on information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty.
However, the dependent variable purchase intent correlated negatively at the 0. Next to this, the study of Kim et al. Risk aversion can play en even more important moderating role in the relationship with transparency and customer loyalty Clemons, In this research risk aversion did not play a significant moderating role. In the relationship of transparency on purchase intent the moderators increased the R square with 0. Finally, all F-values of the complete regression models were below the critical values showing the unimportant role of the moderators as well.
Business practice now knows involvement based on family composition does not have to be taken into account, because being a parent or not does not impact any relationship between transparency and the dependent variables. Because no effects of transparency on the dependent variables could be confirmed additional research is needed.
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Many researchers think transparency is a good practice, but this research cannot support them. In order to avoid skepticism as a result of transparency Koslow, , make sure information is verifiable Loewenstein et al. Business practice should for now hold on to positivism around the construct transparency, because nothing indicated us we should be anxious about it.
Because of the lack of research on transparency dimensions in a B- to-C setting such a research could be worthwhile. Secondly, more extensive research should be done on the moderator involvement.
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Except for being a parent —or not, involvement is supposed to know many other forms possibly influencing or moderating transparency. Finally, more research should be conducted on the relationship between product transparency and the three dependent variables information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty. Just now this research has not been able to confirm a relationship either being positive or negative.
At first, all relevant literature related to this research question was reviewed resulting in an operational theoretical framework and substantiation of the hypotheses.
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Furthermore, the appropriate research method was chosen. A survey experiment was created in Qualtrics and distributed amongst respondents by using Facebook. All surveys were analyzed by using SPSS 20 in order to find out about the correlations and to test the hypotheses. When looking at the correlations and direct effects of transparency on the dependent variables information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty; no relationship could be confirmed based on this research. This is essentially meaning none of the hypotheses could be confirmed or rejected. The different analyses showed the moderating variables risk aversion and involvement had no significant impact on the direct effect of transparency on purchase intent, information need and customer loyalty.
In the first place, because of the small contribution to the R squared and the insignificant p-values. Because of this, all F-values of the three regression models Hayes, were below the critical values resulting in rejecting H0. This meant the models did not have an impact on the dependent variables purchase intent, information need and customer loyalty. Altogether, this research offered some contributions to business practice and Firstly, a significant gap in marketing science was closed concerning the relationship between transparency, purchase intent, information need, and the moderating variables involvement and risk aversion.
Namely, because the anticipated relationship of transparency on the dependent variables has not been researched much in the past. Secondly, business practice now knows involvement does not play a significant moderating role. No negative consequences of transparency were found, so business practice should listen to the fast majority of researchers whom are claiming transparency is a good practice, beneficial for both businesses and consumers.
Not being able to confirm the hypotheses should not hinder businesses in becoming more transparent as long as they take the possible important role of verifiability of the disclosed information into account. This could be important to avoid skepticism Koslow, and increase information need Loewenstein et al.
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In the end, three interesting possibilities for future research were provided. The first opportunity is doing more extensive research on the relationship between product transparency, and the dependent variables information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty. Since, this research has not confirmed a relationship yet a challenge lays ahead. The first breakthrough could be found in researching verifiable product information.
Secondly, research should be conducted on transparency dimensions in a Business to Consumer setting. Unfortunately, existing literature does not provide good and operational dimensions of transparency in a B-to-C setting yet. Finally, the moderating variable involvement should be researched more thoroughly, because this variable possibly knows many interesting forms influencing transparency, and its impact on other variables. Many respondents selected for this research were familiar with retail stores, because they work at Albert Heijn. This could have resulted in the case that these people were possibly familiar with the products used in the experiment.
For this reason these people could have had product knowledge without the products used in the experiment even disclosing any information. To account for this a fairly new product was chosen: Unox Soup in pack. A second possibility is that these people developed preferences for certain products while handling these during their work, thus possibly influencing their choices in the experiment.
Thirdly, this research was not built upon transparency types designed for B-to-C relationships. Due to lack of research on transparency in B-to-C settings, types scientifically built for B-to-B settings had to be altered. Therefore, a strong scientific base for these dimensions lacked. However, this means interesting possibilities for future research as well.
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Final and most important limitation is that this research could not confirm a relationship between product transparency, information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty, moderated by involvement and risk aversion. Despite, many previous research claiming transparency has a positive impact on information need, purchase intent and customer loyalty more additional research is needed to irrefutably confirm this. Schlater, and W. Elimination and choice phases in evoked set formation.
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