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Essays on Genetic Engineering
Bioethicists and scientific researchers must come together to develop consensus positions and moratoriums on particular applications. Broad public education and engagement regarding CRISPR's potential benefits and risks are needed before developing regulations to guide its use. Researchers recently modified the Cas enzyme to make precise edits to DNA without breaking DNA strands, demonstrating the potential to specifically correct genetic mutations 7. From its humble and accidental discovery in the genomes of simple bacteria, CRISPR is set to become one of the most fundamental basic science research tools with broad applications in science and medicine.
Further research and public engagement are needed to fully translate CRISPR's immense potential to improve human health. Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product. Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic elements.
A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive decline. Highly efficient Cas9mediated transcriptional programming.
Genetic Engineering ( Genetic Modification )
Nature Read more winning essays. Double-click to edit. Microinjection, where the DNA is directly injected into plant protoplasts or cell specifically into the nucleus or cytoplasm using fine tipped 0. This method of gene transfer is used to introduce DNA into large cells such as oocytes, eggs, and the cells of early embryo. The foreign DNA fragments enter through the holes into the cytoplasm and then to nucleus. The microprojectile bombardment method was initially named as biolistics by its inventor, Sanford Transformation — This method is used for introducing foreign DNA into bacterial cells e.
The transformation frequency the fraction of cell population that can be transferred is very good in this method, e. The transformation efficiency refers to the number of transformants per microgram of added DNA. Liposomes encapsulate the DNA fragments and then adher to the cell membranes and fuse with them to transfer DNA fragments. Thus, the DNA enters the cell and then to the nucleus. Lipofection is very efficient technique used to transfer genes in bacterial, animal and plant cells.
Biotechnology strategies are being developed to overcome problems caused due to biotic stresses viral, bacterial infections, pests and weeds and abiotic stresses physical factors such as temperature, humidity, salinity etc. The plants show their abiotic stress response reactions by the production of stress related osmolytes like sugars e. Such plants show increased tolerance to environmental stresses.
Essay on “Cloning and genetic engineering” | Examples and Samples
These environmental stresses result in the destruction, deterioration of crop plants which leads to low crop productivity. Several strategies have been used and developed to build resistance in the plants against these stresses. Several biotechnological strategies for weed control are being used e.
This is done by the introduction of a modified gene that encodes for a resistant form of the enzyme targeted by the herbicide in weeds and crop plants. The biological manipulations using genetic engineering to develop herbicide resistant plants are:. Certain strategies were used to provide glyphosate resistance to plants.
These plants could tolerate glyphosate at a dose of times higher than that required to kill wild type plants. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthase which results in the inhibition of the enzyme glutamine synthase and accumulation of ammonia and finally the death of the plant. The disturbace in the glutamine synthesis also inhibits the photosynthetic activity. The enzyme phosphinothricin acetyl transferase which was first observed in Streptomyces sp in natural detoxifying mechanism against phosphinothricin acetylates phosphinothricin, and thus inactivates the herbicide.
The gene encoding for phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar gene was introduced in transgenic maize and oil seed rape to provide resistance against phosphinothricin. The abiotic stresses due to temperature, drought, and salinity are collectively also known as water deficit stresses.
The biosynthetic pathways for the production of many osmoprotectants have been established and genes coding the key enzymes have been isolated e. The choline oxidase gene from Arthrobacter sp. Scientists also developed cold- tolerant genes around 20 in Arabidopsis when this plant was gradually exposed to slowly declining temperature. A variety of insects, mites and nematodes significantly reduce the yield and quality of the crop plants.
The conventional method is to use synthetic pesticides, which also have severe effects on human health and environment.
The transgenic technology uses an innovative and eco-friendly method to improve pest control management. About 40 genes obtained from microorganisms of higher plants and animals have been used to provide insect resistance in crop plants. These are specific to particular group of insect pests and are not harmful to other useful insects like butter flies and silk worms. Transgenic crops with Bt genes e.
This has proved to be an effective way of controlling the insect pests and has reduced the pesticide use. The most notable example is Bt cotton which contains CrylAc gene that is resistant to a notorious insect pest Bollworm Helicoperpa armigera. Certain genes from higher plants were also found to result in the synthesis of products possessing insecticidal activity.
Cowpea trypsin inhibitor CpTi has no effect on mammalian trypsin, hence it is non-toxic to mammals.
There are several strategies for engineering plants for viral resistance, and these utilizes the genes from virus itself e. The virus-derived resistance has given promising results in a number of crop plants such as tobacco, tomato, potato, alfalfa, and papaya. The induction of virus resistance is done by employing virus-encoded genes- virus coat proteins, movement proteins, transmission proteins, satellite RNA, antisense RNAs, and ribozymes.
The virus coat protein-mediated approach is the most successful one to provide virus resistance to plants. It was in , transgenic tobacco plants expressing tobacco mosaic virus TMV coat protein gene were first developed. These plants exhibited high levels of resistance to TMV. Several transgenic crop plants with increased resistance to fungal pathogens are being raised with genes coding for the different compounds.
One of the examples is the Glucanase enzyme that degrades the cell wall of many fungi. Lysozyme degrades chitin and peptidoglycan of cell wall and in this way fungal infection can be reduced. Transgenic potato plants with lysozyme gene providing resistance to Erwinia carotovora have been developed.
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This can be achieved by introducing ethylene forming gene s in a way that will suppress its own expression in the crop plant. Such fruits ripen very slowly however, they can be ripen by ethylene application and this helps in exporting the fruits to longer distances without spoilage due to longer-shelf life. The main strategy used was the antisense RNA approach. Consequently, polygalacturonase is not produced causing delay in the fruit ripening.