Philosophy and psychoanalytic theory collected essays

The SFP accepted this condition, stripping Lacan of his standing within it. Although not without many precedents in his prior work, a Lacanianism distinct from Freudianism began to emerge clearly into view in the mids. This new institutional framework and freedom provided him with a setting in which to experiment with novel approaches to analytic teaching and training.

Prior to this, Lacan had published only a single book, his thesis in psychiatry Throughout his career, Lacan exhibited a serious interest in various branches of mathematical and formal disciplines. By the late s and, especially, the s, discussions of logic, topology, and knot theory were prominent sometimes even dominant features of Lacanian discourse. Topological figures and constructions undermining the intuitions of this picture thinking assisted Lacan in recasting the unconscious as an ensemble of contortions, curvings, folding, inflections, twists, and turns immanent and internal to a single plane of minded subjectivity accessible to rigorous, rational psycho analysis.

Various aspects and facets of things sexual came to be associated by the later Lacan with the enigmatic evasiveness of the Real, including sexual difference. This declaration scandalized many at the time. This decision was controversial and triggered factional infighting amongst his followers. Lacan died in His characterizations of each of the three registers, as well as of their relations with each other, undergo multiple revisions and shifts over the many years of his labors.

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Explorations

As will become increasingly evident in what follows, the majority of Lacanian concepts are defined in connection with all three registers. By the s, with his meditations on the topological figure of the Borromean knot—this knotting of three rings, pictured on the coat of arms of the Borromeo family, is arranged such that if one ring is broken, all three are set free in disconnection—Lacan emphasizes the mutual dependence of the registers on one another.

Lacan tends to associate albeit not exclusively the Imaginary with the restricted spheres of consciousness and self-awareness. It is the register with the closest links to what people experience as non-psychoanalytic quotidian reality. Such a description indicates the ways in which the Imaginary points to core analytic ideas like transference, fantasy, and the ego. As Lacan integrates his early work of the s and s with his structuralism-informed theories of the s, he comes to emphasize the dependence of the Imaginary on the Symbolic.

In fact, it could be maintained that the Imaginary invariably involves category mistakes. However, the phenomena of the Imaginary are necessary illusions to put it in Kantian locution or real abstractions to put it in Marxian parlance. This signals two points. The Lacanian Symbolic initially is theorized on the basis of resources provided by structuralism. Tied to natural languages as characterized by Saussure and specific post-Saussurians, this register also refers to the customs, institutions, laws, mores, norms, practices, rituals, rules, traditions, and so on of cultures and societies with these things being entwined in various ways with language.


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Individual subjects are what they are in and through the mediation of the socio-linguistic arrangements and constellations of the register of the Symbolic. Hence, Lacan is not saying that the unconscious is structured like French, German, English, Spanish, or any other particular natural language. More generally, the later Lacan remains reliant on the notion of the Real sides of the Symbolic, these being signifiers in their meaningless, nonsensical materiality as visible marks and audible sounds i.

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Such senseless signifiers and their enchainings amount to a late Lacanian rendition of Freudian primary processes as the thinking distinctive of unconscious mindedness. Contrary to the crudeness of commonplace vulgar picturings of Freudian analysis as an irrationalist, neo-romantic psychology of the unruly natural depths, the unconscious is not the id, namely, an anarchic seething cauldron of unthinking animalistic instincts i.

The register of the Real is tricky to encapsulate and evades being pinned down through succinct definitions. But, rather than being just a barrier to grasping the Real, this absence is itself revelatory of this register. To be more precise, as that which is foreign to Imaginary-Symbolic reality—this reality is the realm containing conscious apprehension, communicable significance, and the like—the Real is intrinsically elusive, resisting by nature capture in the comprehensibly meaningful formulations of concatenations of Imaginary-Symbolic signs.

Death and Desire: Psychoanalytic Theory in Lacan's Return to Freud

The Real hence would be whatever is beyond, behind, or beneath phenomenal appearances accessible to the direct experiences of first-person awareness. Additionally, in the s, Lacan tends to speak of the Real as an absolute fullness, a pure plenum devoid of the negativities of absences, antagonisms, gaps, lacks, splits, etc. Portrayed thusly, the Symbolic is primarily responsible for injecting such negativities into the Real. As I noted above, the seventh seminar of — marks a shift away from the privileging of the Symbolic over the course of the s and toward prioritizing the Real.

The new Real involves convergences of opposites as a register of volatile oscillations and unstable reversals between excesses and lacks, surpluses and deficits, flooding presences and draining absences.


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It comes to be associated with libidinal negativities objet petit a , jouissance , and sexual difference, all to be discussed later—see 2. Instead, for Lacan, analysis both theoretical and clinical permits delineating and tracking the Real with conceptual precision, if only as an exercise in pinpointing the exact limits of the Imaginary, the Symbolic, and their overlappings.

Initially developed in the s, this account involves a number of interrelated ingredients. Lacan offers the narrative of this stage as an explanation specifically for the genesis and functions of the Freudian psychical agency of the ego Ich , moi.

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Against this, Lacan views the ego as thoroughly compromised and inherently neurotic to its very core, as a passionate defense of a constitutive ignorance of the unconscious. Appearances notwithstanding, the ego is, when all is said and done, an inert, fixed bundle of objectified coordinates, a libidinally invested and reified entity. By contrast with the ego and the illusory sense of fictional selfhood it supports, the psychoanalytic subject of Lacanianism is an unconscious kinetic negativity defying capture by and within ego-level identificatory constructs.

The Lacanian enunciating subject of the unconscious speaks through the ego while remaining irreducibly distinct from it. Returning to a tighter focus on the mirror stage proper, Lacan, relying on empirical data from the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, posits that very young children, between the ages of six and eighteen months, quickly acquire the ability to identify their own images in reflective surfaces.

At this time, infants are lacking in most physical and mental abilities possessed by older human beings. Following Freud here, Lacan fleshes out this helplessness into which birth throws neonates, describing in detail the anatomical, physiological, cognitive, emotional, and motivational facets of this natural condition of post-birth prematurity. For Lacan, identification with the imago-Gestalt of the moi entails alienation—and this for additional reasons over and above those given in the preceding paragraphs. But, in subsequent revisitations of the mirror stage during the s, Lacan dramatically highlights the supporting role of fellow human beings instead.

The Relationship between Freud’s Theory and Literary Criticism

This later shift of emphasis has two crucial consequences. Or, as the Lacan of the eleventh seminar would put it, there is something in the me more than the me itself to the extent that this moi essentially is a coagulation of inter-subjective and trans-subjective alien influences. Although he often talks of mirrors as shiny reflective surfaces, he does not limit mirroring to being a visible physical phenomenon alone. The lower-case-o other designates the Imaginary ego and its accompanying alter-egos. The capital-O Other refers to two additional types of otherness corresponding to the registers of the Symbolic and the Real.

Thanks particularly to what he takes from his engagements with structuralism, Lacan, throughout his career, is careful to avoid a pseudo-Freudian reification of the bourgeois nuclear family, with a mother and father biologically sexed female and male respectively. And, finally, why should they even produce this peculiar affective response rather than none at all?

As an instructive introduction for a further demarcation of the problem, Freud offers the following, general formula:. Accordingly, we seem to have three relevant conditions — 1 the uncanny affect; 2 imagination; 3 appearance. First, the feeling of uncanniness should be distinguished from more common affective responses such as surprise, fear or mere indifference. Secondly, what it is that should be added seems to be contained in the two other conditions: appearance and imagination.

Freud illustrates this point with an example taken from his case study of the Rat Man:. In the case history of an obsessional neurotic, I have described how the patient once stayed in a hydropathic establishment and benefited greatly by it. He had the good sense, however, to attribute his improvement not to the therapeutic properties of the water, but to the situation of his room, which immediately adjoined that of a very accommodating nurse.

A fortnight later the old gentleman really did have a stroke. And the reason for this is precisely because reality appears to correspond with was held to be impossible: better knowledge is suspended because of the qualities of the appearance. Conversely, lifting the veil of appearances would mean to break the spell of the uncanny. Furthermore, it can even be said that the logic of the uncanny is directly opposed to the logic of intellectual uncertainty.

As Dolar points out, the most uncanny thing is not so much that we are kept uncertain as to the true nature of events, whether or not what happens is really due some unfathomable scenario. On the contrary, what is uncanny is that one knows in advance precisely what is bound to happen, even how and when it will happen … and then, effectively, it really does happen.

This would mean that in the absence of better knowledge, whenever the distance between myself and the suspended belief disappears, the phenomenon of the uncanny would disappear as well. Again, Freud has noted this point in his subsequent effort, later on in the text, to shift the emphasis from his earlier material definition of the uncanny in terms of the content of the appearance, to a formal definition in terms of the subjective position of those afflicted by the uncanny toward that very same content. If it is not the content of the appearance as such that seems to be responsible for the uncanny feeling when reading those stories, then, as Freud argues, we should consider the subjective position from which such stories are read , pp.

Within this attitude, we know that such figures as the eye-robbing Sand-Man do not exist. In fairy tales, however,.

Wish-fulfillments, secret powers, omnipotence of thoughts, animation of inanimate objects, all the elements so common in fairy stories, can exert no uncanny influence here […] Freud, , p. Here, precisely, in the enchanted world of fairy tales where the existence of ghosts, resurrection of the dead, miracles and other gruesome plots is assumed, we have nothing to fear. And we have nothing to fear precisely because the difference between better knowledge and belief is temporarily suspended.

On the other hand, only if we are invited to the enlightened position of better knowledge, only if we know that wishes are not causally responsible for certain outcomes in the world, do we spontaneously react to those outcomes as if we believed that things could have been different. To conclude our article, we will note three points that are particularly relevant for our discussion.

First , as was the case in the examples discussed earlier, the logic of the uncanny should be understood in terms of a complex dialectic between better knowledge and belief. According to this principle, beliefs are explained by the properties of the apparent object. Because reality appears in such a way as if, for example, it corresponds to the immediate fulfillment of my wishes, I wrongly believe that it does.

More precisely: on a psychoanalytic account, the uncanny is uncanny not because I confuse appearance with reality, not because I succumb to the illusion and naively follow the appearance, but, on the contrary, precisely because I do not follow the appearance, because I am able to recognize the illusion as an illusion or at least believe I can and therefore picture myself as occupying a transcendent position of better knowledge.

In short: exactly when — to put it in Husserlian terms — I do not confuse properties of what is represented with the act of representing. JF confirms being a contributor to this work and approved it for publication.

The Logic of Appearance: Dennett, Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis

SV confirms being a contributor to this work and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v.