For others, medieval Iberia is best seen as a harsh and unrelenting mill that, through the grating and grinding of competing cultures and hostile takeovers, churned out some of the worst templates of religious intolerance: jihad and crusade, forced conversions, torture and inquisition, racial exclusion, wholesale expulsions, and more. It is telling that Nirenberg both begins and ends with a critique of Huntington. Yet other scholars, now quite a few, shun this polarity altogether and favor a more nuanced middle ground of conflict and coexistence.
In doing so, however, they must face the uphill battle of formulating a coherent explanatory model that adequately captures the realities of both sides. Studies of this kind focus heavily on the inherent paradox of a pluralistic society where communal coherence was precarious, geographical and ideological borders were always shifting, and allegiances among groups could be as fleeting as the fortunes of battle.
Broadly speaking, then, discussions of interfaith relations in pre-modern Spain conform to one of three models: an uplifting lesson in enlightened coexistence, a depressing tale of bloodshed and violence, or a nuanced but unsettling description of cultural hybridity and economic interdependence. In this stimulating and deeply learned collection of essays of which all except one have previously been published , medieval historian David Nirenberg reaffirms his mastery as an original and challenging expositor in the third category of historical interpreters.
It has been almost twenty years since the publication of his groundbreaking Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages , which helped to set in motion a major rethinking of the monolithic nature of medieval persecutory violence. Neighboring Faiths both revisits and expands upon several of the themes of that first book, and while there is assuredly some repetition in the subject matter, there are also some notable differences.
The comparative anthropological dimension that laced together his earlier analyses of the stabilizing forces of violence here recedes into the background, as does his focus on everyday behaviors and interactions on the societal level. In its place is a greater emphasis on intellectual history, or the history of thought and ideas, an approach that runs parallel to his most recent book, Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition , rigorously and admiringly reviewed in this venue. Most especially, Nirenberg has migrated from emphasizing the contingency of the historical moment as independent of future events to interrogating how the past and the present operate in a quasi Hegelian dialectic.
He develops this argument most fully in the final chapter of the book but it is evident throughout. The same might of course equally be said of the early history of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam in the Near East a topic of increasing scholarly attention. Spain, however, provides an especially useful laboratory for dissecting and examining these relations because the historical sources attesting to those interactions are so rich and the ideological consequences of those encounters have powerfully influenced our modern world, including giving rise to theories and vocabularies for what we have learned to call race which he insists, pace others, comes from the Spanish word raza.
Over the course of nine heavily footnoted chapters Nirenberg marshals a broad array of evidence as he paints dense and captivating vignettes of how these communities have imagined and reimagined themselves and each other. Their membership of the former may on occasion clash with their identity as members of the latter, particularly if there are cultural or racial differences involved, as members may share a sense of loyalty to their group identity as members of the family.
Good fences make good neighbours
According to Erving Goffman, we need to look at small-scale social activity in order to understand society as a whole. Taylor, , p , and therefore understanding how neighbours relate to each other can help us to understand how whole communities also relate to each other. The argument in the title highlights the fact that no matter how close you are to a neighbour , both physically and personally, there is always a need for privacy.
As mentioned by Jovan Byford, Byford, , p. The rules of engagement for a neighbour are an intrinsic characteristic built into us from our own experiences, and we act on them almost automatically. Byford illustrates this in his transcript of a conversation he had himself with a neighbour and his use of discursive pschology Byford, , pg. It is a simple exchange of words in which both There are many qualities that are desirable in a neighbor.
A good neighbor is someone who does not mow over your flowers or does not play music too loud. Robert Frost once said that "A good fence makes a good neighbor. Most people want a solid fence between their house and their neighbors. I only the other hand, see a fence as a way to put yourself in a space that is just yours for nobody else to enter.
I think that a fence can be symbolic of an emotional wall. For example, a neighbor who has their house fenced off by a twenty foot fence may want to keep to themselves and not be involved with the rest of the community. A tall fence is put up when people want their privacy and do not want to let others into their personal space. Another reason people put up tall fences is to show their class and how much money they have, since large fences are usually related to having money and power. On the other hand, a small white picket fence can be symbolic of somebody who wants the all American lifestyle.
A fence could be put up simply to keep the children and pets safe in the yard of a home. For example, a farmer has to have a fence so his horses, cows, and pigs do not get loose and run wild. That would cost him money. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.
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- Robert Frost's Mending Wall.
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- Good Fences Make Good Neighbors - Wikipedia.
China is the world's second-largest country by land area, the total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,, km2. China have very long history that it is one of the world's oldest civilizations. The idea that God Almighty could become a human being is seemingly absurd, but in creating the limitation — the kenosis as theologians might put it — God becomes if I may be slightly irreverent a living sonnet, or more accurately perhaps a living Epic.
The power of God seemingly reduced by the limitation of time and space actually increases. Hi James, yes, walls need to be applied metaphorically.
Good Fences Make Good Neighbors. : School Essays : College Essays : Essays :
We need to draw the lines, write lines to enforce boundaries. We cannot grow or interact well without marking boundaries. As poets we will know this — we write the lines — we use words and value their rhetorical, real abilities. We are humans as well, physical beings; we need also to make physical boundaries — build physical walls of stone, brick, concrete, wood, steel, water, or air as in ha-has or trenches. Frost writes that he wonders if he could put a notion in the head of someone who thinks walls make good neighbours.
The Left Liberal view is that all people coming to the US have sensible principles; are rational; have good knowledge of what they are moving towards; and that what they are moving away from is immediately life-threatening and insoluble.
Good Fences Make Good Neighbours
What is happening in the UK parallels the influx of people into the US. A pity there has been no one effective in UK politics to implement Brexit in the last two years since the vote to leave the EU. So many people here think Trump is a mess and deviant. Yet he has achieved so much of what he set out to when running for office.
And looks to be getting a long-standing Mexican Border. Thanks for your comments Damian and James A. I think that that kind of bigger mindset is significant when considering some of the political questions. So, for example, I am encouraged by the idea that good fences make good neighbours — as a Brexiteer — when I hear the utopian rant of Remainers who seem to think that national identity is a bad thing and that the world would be such a big happy place if only there were no borders between us and Europe.
So Evan has done a great job in bringing this poem and his response to it forward. Mantyk, the above lacks the originality, and the punch, of yours on the same subject.
If I have understood Mr. Mantyk and Mr. Sale correctly, the reading of this poems is that walls can be good in certain circumstances; or that walls are good in a metaphorical way, just as the limitations of formal poetry are helpful towards the creation of mature poetry. I believe these interpretations are insufficient and will attempt to show why by pointing to the poem itself. First, we should acknowledge three persons in this poem: Frost, the speaker and the neighbor.
It is not always the case that the speaker of the poem is the same as the poet. Second, consider the tone of this poem toward walls.