Essays on new testament christianity

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The Holy Bible: New Testament (Audiobook) - Part 1/2

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For example, order of words i. Outside of these unimportant variants, there are a couple variants of some importance. The two most commonly cited examples are the last verses of the Gospel of Mark [] [] [] and the story of the adulterous woman in the Gospel of John. The often referred to Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, a book written to prove the validity of the New Testament, says: " A study of Greek [manuscripts] of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30, different readings It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the New Testament in which the [manuscript] is wholly uniform.

By the 4th century, textual "families" or types of text become discernible among New Testament manuscripts. A "text-type" is the name given to a family of texts with similar readings due to common ancestors and mutual correction. Many early manuscripts, however, contain individual readings from several different earlier forms of text. Modern texual critics have identified the following text-types among textual witnesses to the New Testament: The Alexandrian text-type is usually considered to generally preserve many early readings.

It is represented, e. The Western text-type is generally longer and can be paraphrastic, but can also preserve early readings. The Western version of the Acts of the Apostles is, notably, 8. A text-type referred to as the " Caesarean text-type " and thought to have included witnesses such as Codex Koridethi and minuscule , can today be described neither as "Caesarean" nor as a text-type as was previously thought.

However, the Gospel of Mark in Papyrus 45 , Codex Washingtonianus and in Family 13 does indeed reflect a distinct type of text. Increasing standardization of distinct and once local text-types eventually gave rise to the Byzantine text-type. Since most manuscripts of the New Testament do not derive from the first several centuries, that is, they were copied after the rise of the Byzantine text-type, this form of text is found the majority of extant manuscripts and is therefore often called the "Majority Text.

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Biblical criticism is the scholarly "study and investigation of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings. It will vary slightly depending on whether the focus is on the Old Testament , the letters of the New Testament, or the Canonical Gospels. It also plays an important role in the quest for the historical Jesus.

It also addresses the physical text, including the meaning of the words and the way in which they are used, its preservation, history, and integrity. Biblical criticism draws upon a wide range of scholarly disciplines including archaeology , anthropology , folklore , linguistics , Oral Tradition studies , history, and religious studies. The textual variation among manuscript copies of books in the New Testament prompted attempts to discern the earliest form of text already in antiquity e.

The efforts began in earnest again during the Renaissance , which saw a revival of the study of ancient Greek texts. During this period, modern textual criticism was born. This was the beginning of modern New Testament textual criticism , which over subsequent centuries would increasingly incorporate more and more manuscripts, in more languages i.

Books that later formed the New Testament, like other Christian literature of the period, originated in a literary context that reveals relationships not only to other Christian writings, but also to Graeco-Roman and Jewish works. Of singular importance is the extensive use of and interaction with the Jewish Bible and what would become the Christian Old Testament. Both implicit and explicit citations, as well as countless allusions, appear throughout the books of the New Testament, from the Gospels and Acts, to the Epistles, to the Apocalypse.

The first translations usually called "versions" of the New Testament were made beginning already at the end of 2nd century. The earliest versions of the New Testament are the translations into the Syriac , Latin , and Coptic languages. Several Syriac translations were made and have come to us.

Most of the Old Syriac, however, as well as the Philoxonian version have been lost. Tatian , the Assyrian, created the Diatessaron , a gospel harmony written in Syriac around AD and the earliest form of the gospel not only in Syriac but probably also in Armenian.


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In the 19th century, manuscript evidence was discovered for an "Old Syriac" version of the four distinct i. These "separated" Syriac: da-Mepharreshe gospels, though old, have been shown to be later than the Diatessaron.

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The Old Syriac gospels are fragmentarily preserved in two manuscripts: the 5th-century Curetonian Syriac and the Sinaitic Syriac from the 4th or 5th century. The Old Syriac version is a representative of the Western text-type. The Peshitta version was prepared in the beginning of the 5th century. It contains only 22 books neither the Minor Catholic Epistles of 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, nor the Book of Revelation were part of this translation.

The Philoxenian probably was produced in for Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabung. The Gospels were likely translated into Latin as early as the last quarter of the 2nd century in North Africa Afra. Not much later, there were also European Latin translations Itala. There are about 80 Old Latin mansucripts. For the avoidance of confusion, these texts were written in Late Latin , not the early version of the Latin language known as Old Latin , pre 75 BC. The bewildering diversity of the Old Latin versions prompted Jerome to prepare another translation into Latin—the Vulgate.

In many respects it was merely a revision of the Old Latin. There are currently around 8, manuscripts of the Vulgate. There are several dialects of the Coptic language: Bohairic northern dialect , Fayyumic , Sahidic southern dialect , Akhmimic , and others. The first translation was made by at least the 3rd century into the Sahidic dialect cop sa.

This translation represents a mixed text, mostly Alexandrian , though also with Western readings. A Bohairic translation was made later, but existed already in the 4th century.

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Though the translation makes less use of Greek words than the Sahidic, it does employ some Greek grammar e. For this reason, the Bohairic translation can be helpful in the reconstruction of the early Greek text of the New Testament. The continued spread of Christianity, and the foundation of national churches, led to the translation of the Bible—often beginning with books from the New Testament—into a variety of other languages at a relatively early date: Armenian , Georgian , Ethiopic , Persian , Sogdian , and eventually Gothic , Old Church Slavonic , Arabic , and Nubian.

Historically, throughout the Christian world and in the context of Christian missionary activity , the New Testament or portions thereof has been that part of the Christian Bible first translated into the vernacular. The production of such translations grew out of the insertion of vernacular glosses in biblical texts, as well as out of the production of biblical paraphrases and poetic renditions of stories from the life of Christ e.

The 16th century saw the rise of Protestantism and an explosion of translations of the New and Old Testament into the vernacular. Most of these translations relied though not always exclusively upon one of the printed editions of the Greek New Testament edited by Erasmus , a form of this Greek text emerged as the standard and is known as the Textus Receptus.

This text, based on the majority of manuscripts is also used in the majority of translations that were made in the years to AD. Translations of the New Testament made since the appearance of critical editions of the Greek text notably those of Tischendorf , Westcott and Hort , and von Soden have largely used them as their base text. Unlike the Textus Receptus , these have a pronounced Alexandrian character.

Though all Christian churches accept the New Testament as scripture, they differ in their understanding of the nature, extent, and relevance of its authority. Views of the authoritativeness of the New Testament often depend on the concept of inspiration , which relates to the role of God in the formation of the New Testament.