What do we mean by "The Literature"? Guide Author.
Philip Meiralcott. Email Me. Contact: Social: Twitter Page. What is a Literature Review? It should: Have a particular focus or theme to organize the review. Discuss the significant academic literature important for that focus. Compare, relate, and contrast different theories and findings. Reflect trends over time. Be written in a legible academic style, leading logically from idea to idea.
Paraphrases your findings. APA 2. Synthesizing literature 3. Writing literature reviews 2. Reference List Chapter in edited book Garen, E.
Appraising ecotourism in conserving biodiversity. Clark, A. Cromley Eds.
New Haven: Yale University Press. Notice no comma after Willard A. Forum: Beware of the humans. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 24 4 , Reference List Book Schaller, G.
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The mountain gorilla: Ecology and behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Agnew, C. Water resources in the arid realm. New York: Routledge. Notice comma after Agnew, C. Nim was able to string together as many as 16 signs, but their order appeared quite random Terrace et al. Catch the Error 1 Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames , p. No page number is needed if there is no direct quote.
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Revised Duffy and Petronius found that none of the subjects showed improvement. No page number needed since there was no direct quote. Catch the Error 4 Boyle , , found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. Revised Boyle a, b, c found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study will be designated by a different letter — a, b, c, etc.
American Psychological Association (APA) Style
Items are listed in the reference section alphabetically by title. Explanation: Since a direct quote was used, a page number must be provided after the quote. Revised When contacted, C. You do not need to put this in the References section since the data is non- recoverable. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol.
Types of APA Papers // Purdue Writing Lab
Revised Bretschneider, J. Sexual interest and behavior in healthy year-olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, Catch the Error 8 Hashimoto, Thomas. March 13, , p. Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol.
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Revised Hashimoto, T. Seeing red in November. Newsweek, , Explanation: Only initial for first name. Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in parentheses. Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma, volume number italicized, then page number s. Hanging indent, Catch the Error 9 Pinkerton originally published in , reprinted in believed that democracy was a two-edged sword. Socrates B. Socrates trans. Explanation: If original year of publication is known, list that first, followed by slash and year of publication you used.
For classical works, cite the translation year. For example, 8 of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after thirty- six hours. Assume NIMH is introduced here for the first time. For example, eight of those surveyed believed supplies would run out within 24 hours. Not surprisingly, only 2 out of 15 thought survival was possible after 36 hours. Explanation: Number and abbreviation rules.
Major reasons for rejection Inappropriate for journal Not novel Poorly written and organized Little contribution to theory Poor design Not well-researched Helps to plan the collection of primary data.